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GYM CONQUER ジム筋華のブランドイメージ

Unveil the Truth About Carbohydrates: The Ultimate Energy Source!

Updated: 3 days ago

"Yare yare daze... Many trainers boast about their knowledge, but do they truly understand the basics of carbohydrates?"

Carbohydrates are a crucial energy source for athletes, yet few understand their types, digestion, and absorption mechanisms. Let's dive deep into the fundamentals of carbohydrates and uncover their true power!

A muscular character striking a dramatic pose against a backdrop illustrating different carbohydrates, including grains, fruits, and vegetables. The character has a determined expression, with "ORA ORA ORA" onomatopoeic sounds floating around.

What Are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Common foods rich in carbohydrates include rice, bread, pasta, and noodles. Carbohydrates are an excellent energy source because they are easily digested, have minimal impact on the digestive system, and can be stored in muscles and the liver.

Types of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are divided into "sugars" and "dietary fibers." Sugars are further categorized into "monosaccharides," "disaccharides," and "polysaccharides."


Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar:

  • Glucose: Found in fruits and vegetables, especially grapes. It's the primary energy source for the brain and red blood cells.

  • Fructose: Found in fruits and honey, it's very sweet. Excessive intake can increase triglycerides and uric acid.

  • Galactose: Produced by breaking down lactose in dairy products.

  • Mannose: Found in plant-based fibers like konjac mannan.


Disaccharides are formed by two monosaccharides:

  • Sucrose: Common table sugar, composed of glucose and fructose.

  • Lactose: Found in milk, composed of galactose and glucose.

  • Maltose: Formed from two glucose molecules, found in germinating grains.


Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides. Starch is a primary example, and when broken down by enzymes, it forms dextrin.

The Fate of Sugars

Monosaccharides require no digestion and are absorbed directly. Disaccharides and polysaccharides, however, need to be broken down by digestive enzymes. Amylase in saliva starts breaking down starches and dextrin. This process continues in the stomach and small intestine until the sugars are fully broken down into monosaccharides and absorbed.

The Role of Insulin

"The most important hormone for muscle growth is insulin, not testosterone or growth hormone!"

Insulin lowers blood sugar by transporting glucose into body tissues. It also helps deliver amino acids to muscles. Insulin secretion occurs in two phases: basal and bolus. Basal secretion is continuous at low levels, while bolus secretion spikes after meals.

Insulin Hierarchy

Insulin works in a specific order: first on muscles, then the liver, and finally fat. The more muscle you have, the less likely insulin will increase fat storage. Training increases muscle insulin sensitivity, making energy use more efficient.

Glycemic Index (GI)

The GI measures how quickly carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels. High-GI foods cause rapid spikes, leading to increased insulin secretion. Low-GI foods provide a slower, more stable release of energy.

Enhancing Insulin Sensitivity

  • Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine: Amino acids that boost insulin sensitivity.

  • EPA: Found in fatty fish, enhances insulin sensitivity.

  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid: Improves insulin sensitivity in muscles.

  • Cinnamon: Improves insulin function.

The Problem with Fructose

"Fructose may seem healthy, but be cautious!"

Fructose can increase triglycerides and induce fatty liver. It also poses a risk for glycation, a process where sugars bind to proteins, forming harmful AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products).

Glycation and Its Impact

Glycation leads to the formation of AGEs, which stiffen proteins and reduce their elasticity. This can cause wrinkles, arterial stiffness, and other health issues. Reducing sugar intake is crucial to prevent glycation.

Workout Drinks and Carbohydrates

"To maximize performance, consume carbohydrates during your workout!"

Ingesting carbohydrates during exercise helps prevent muscle protein breakdown and improves performance. Fast-absorbing dextrins, especially cluster dextrin, are effective. Diluting 100% juice with water is a practical alternative if you forget your carb supplement.



"Yare yare daze... Understanding the types and roles of carbohydrates is key to effective training and health management!"

By mastering the basics of carbohydrates, you can manage energy efficiently and optimize your training. Knowing the characteristics of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides allows for better utilization and improved fitness outcomes.


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